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“O planeta do futuro não será nossa herança e sim nossa criação. O mundo que nos espera não está para ser conquistado, está para ser construído” (GUILLEBAULD, Jean-Claude. A Reinvenção do mundo- um adeus ao século XX. 2003, p. 377).

Parece quase impossível pensar em uma sociedade pós-capitalista, de tão cristalizado que o sistema está em nossas mentes e no nosso estilo de vida. Mais difícil ainda é imaginar as vias que levarão a esse destino, se é que ocorrerá. Esse debate ganhou força nesse século (mas lembre ao longo da história!) após a crise mundial deflagrada em 2008. Foi nesse contexto, com o Occppy Wall Street., que os antagonismo de um sistema socioeconômico que realça as desigualdades e os questionamentos sobre redistribuição, política e democracia vieram à tona com grande intensidade.

É inegável que o capitalismo, ao longo dos séculos, tenha sido responsável pela criação de riqueza e melhorias na qualidade de vida das populações. Em contrapartida, também foram deixados rastros atrozes. E não é novidade que o funcionamento das organizações e a riqueza gerada sempre ficaram em poucas mãos. Como resultado temos séculos de exclusão, exploração e inúmeras sequelas, hoje mais claras do que nunca, das quais as mais alarmantes são: a crise energética, a climática, a social e a ecológica.

Os contornos que alimentam a questão:

  1. A gigantesca polarização econômica, social e cultural, com respostas lentas ou inexistentes por parte de democracias e governanças ;
  2. A degradação ambiental acrescida por eventos extremos relacionados ao clima com impactos em várias áreas;
  3. As crises e riscos interconectados acontecem em efeito dominó, frequentemente mais imprevisíveis;
  4. O crescimento populacional com demanda por mais recursos acentua a aceleração da degradação ambiental. A capacidade regenerativa planetária está aquém do que é requisitado. O mundo deve repensar o consumo.
  5. A emergência de um mundo sem trabalho. A automação e a inteligência artificial são responsáveis por algumas das mudanças cruciais no porvir. As expectativas de perda de postos de trabalho em um futuro próximo são alarmantes;
  6. Quarta Revolução Industrial passa a exigir reavaliações de como enfrentaremos a complexidade e transformações em curso, como lidaremos com novos agentes, novos modos de produção, com novas formas de governar e de administrar.

Porém, assim como a humanidade não saiu do feudalismo num piscar de olhos, a transição para esse estágio da humanidade poderá levar bastante tempo. Muitos de nós não estarão vivos para ver. Isso é imprevisível, considerando a capacidade do capitalismo de se reinventar durante toda sua existência. Um exemplo claro é, atualmente, a Sharing Economy. Sem falar que a grande maioria acredita piamente que o capitalismo continua sendo a solução pra todos os males da humanidade. No entanto, algo está no ar e a discussão é fértil. Apropriada para alguns e sem sentido para outros.

LINKS RELACIONADOS:

After Capitalism

“How will it end? For centuries even the most sanguine of capitalism’s theorists have thought it not long for this world. Smith, Ricardo, and Mill pointed to a “falling rate of profit” linked to inevitable declines in agricultural productivity. Marx applied the same concept to industrial production, suggesting that the tendency to replace workers with machines would lead to a chronic and insurmountable lack of demand. Sombart saw the restive adventurousness of capitalism as the key to its success—and, ultimately, its failure: though the appearance of new peripheries had long funneled profits back to the center, the days of “stout Cortez” had ended and there would one day be no empires or hinterlands to subdue.”

Inventing the Future : Postcapitalism and a World Without Work

“Nick Srnicek and Alex Williams’s Inventing the Future argues that the contemporary left must revive its historically central mission of imaginative engagement with futurity. It must refuse the all-too-easy trap of dismissing visions of technological and social progress as neoliberal fantasies. It must seize the contemporary moment of increasing technological sophistication to demand a post-scarcity future where people are no longer obliged to be workers; where production and distribution are democratically delegated to a largely automated infrastructure; where people are free to fish in the afternoon and criticize after dinner. It must combine a utopian imagination with the patient organizational work necessary to wrest the future from the clutches of hegemonic neoliberalism.”

After capitalism, what comes next? For a start, ethics

“Our route to post-capitalism foregrounds the ethical dimensions of economic life, and how technologies and regimes of governance might:

  1. Foster less “me”- and “now”-focused subjects of history;
  2. Support more responsible interactions with the ecologies in which we live.”

Arms, Agribusiness, Finance And Fossil Fuels: The Four Horsemen Of The Neoliberal Apocalypse

“The only real alternative for humanity is to turn away from what Gandhi called a “nine-day wonder” model of development, which strips the environment bare. If we are to avoid ecological meltdown and ultimately what appears to be a possible nuclear conflict, we must reject capitalism and militarism by reorganising economies so that nations live within their environmental means.

Part of this involves a major shift away from the petro-chemical industrial model of agriculture and food production, not only because it leads to bad foodpoor health and environmental degradation and is ultimately unsustainable but also because this model has underpinned a destructive US foreign policy agenda for many decades.”

The end of capitalism has begun

“As with the end of feudalism 500 years ago, capitalism’s replacement by postcapitalism will be accelerated by external shocks and shaped by the emergence of a new kind of human being. And it has started.

Postcapitalism is possible because of three major changes information technology has brought about in the past 25 years. First, it has reduced the need for work, blurred the edges between work and free time and loosened the relationship between work and wages. The coming wave of automation, currently stalled because our social infrastructure cannot bear the consequences, will hugely diminish the amount of work needed – not just to subsist but to provide a decent life for all.”

Is Capitalism Ending?

“What we are looking at is not the end of capitalism, but rather the next phase of its evolution. The world that is emerging is still a market-driven phenomenon that is recognizable as capitalism.

Describing the shift towards the Creative Economy with a haze of warm and fuzzy utopianism not only falsely characterizes the positive changes that are under way. It risks deferring their eventual acceptance.

The Creative Economy is indeed potentially better—better for those doing the work, better for those for whom the work is done, better for the organizations orchestrating the work and ultimately better for society as a whole. It has no need of of fake PR.”

Regenerative Economies for a Regenerative Civilization

“My premise is that the history of economic thought did not end with Keynes and Hayek or Minsky and Friedman, leaving us nothing to do but shout our ideological beliefs across the public square. I believe this early stage of understanding regenerative economies is the natural next step in the evolution of economic thinking, bringing economics into alignment with our latest scientific understanding of how the universe actually works, building upon the profound advances of ecological economics as developed by Herman Daly and colleagues. The potential and structure of regenerative systems applies to both ecological and humanistic values; it is not simply a ‘green’ idea. We already see expressions of regenerative efforts emerging all around us, although they are often invisible to those observers still trapped in the outdated reductionist paradigm. Until now, this transition has been hampered by the lack of an effective story.

We believe Regenerative Capitalism — informed by practical experience, built around principles of systemic health, anchored in scientific rigor, and grounded in universal wisdom traditions and a common sense moral framework—can provide the foundation for the new narrative we need at this critical juncture.”

Is capitalism killing us?

“Modern life is full of ironies, paradoxes and what Marxists used to call “contradictions”. Perhaps the greatest contradiction of all time is the possibility that the capitalist system is not only incompatible with a sustainable natural environment, but that it is also placing a rather large question mark over our collective future on the planet.”

After Technology Destroys Capitalism

“What if today’s technology is beginning to finally make better alternatives possible…but just as clean tech is being thwarted by the trillions of dollars previously sunk into fossil-fuel infrastructure, our collective investment in capitalism itself is forestalling superior post-capitalist alternatives?”

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate review – Naomi Klein’s powerful and urgent polemic

“This Changes Everything is as much about the psychology of denial as it is about climate change. “It is always easier to deny reality,” writes Naomi Klein, “than to allow our worldview to be shattered, a fact that was as true of diehard Stalinists at the height of the purges as of libertarian climate deniers today.” Much of this book is concerned with showing that powerful and well-financed rightwing thinktanks and lobby groups lie behind the denial of climate change in recent years. There is not much reasonable doubt as to the findings of science on the subject. As a result of human activities, large-scale climate change is under way, and if it goes on unchecked it will fundamentally alter the world in which humans will in future have to live. Yet the political response has been at best ambiguous and indecisive. Governments have backed off from previous climate commitments, and environmental concerns have slipped down the policy agenda to a point at which in many contexts they are treated as practically irrelevant.”

It’s Not Climate Change  -  It’s Everything Change

For everything to stay the same, everything has to change,” says a character in Giuseppe di Lampedusa’s 1963 novel, The Leopard. What do we need to change to keep our world stable? How do we solve for X+Y+Z — X being our civilization’s need for energy, without which it will fall swiftly into anarchy; Y being the finite nature of the earth’s atmosphere, incapable of absorbing infinite amounts of CO2 without destroying us; and Z being our understandable wish to live full and happy lives on a healthy planet, followed by future human generations doing the same. One way of solving this equation is to devise more efficient ways of turning sunlight into electrical energy. Another way is to make oil itself — and the CO2 it emits — part of a cyclical process rather than a linear one. Oil, it seems, does not have to come out of the ground, and it doesn’t have to have pollution as its end product.”

Anthropocene or Capitalocene?

Anthropocene or Capitalocene? offers a series of provocative essays on nature and power, humanity, and capitalism. Including both well-established voices and younger scholars, the book challenges the conventional practice of dividing historical change and contemporary reality into “Nature” and “Society,” demonstrating the possibilities offered by a more nuanced and connective view of human environment-making, joined at every step with and within the biosphere. In distinct registers, the authors frame their discussions within a politics of hope that signal the possibilities for transcending capitalism, broadly understood as a “world-ecology” that joins nature, capital, and power as a historically evolving whole.

Contributors include Jason W. Moore, Eileen Crist, Donna J. Haraway, Andreas Malm, Elmar Altvater, Daniel Hartley, and Christian Parenti.”

Nó górdio e crise do capitalismo

“Uma crise global assola o mundo que conhecemos. A crise da energia e da alimentação, a degradação do meio ambiente, a recessão e a crise financeira, a perda de legitimidade da democracia e o esvaziamento dos valores de nossa cultura são sintomas das limitações do capitalismo para reproduzir e legitimar a estrutura de relações de poder a nível global. A desintegração dessa estrutura, baseada em uma determinada forma de produção, apropriação e distribuição do excedente econômico a nível mundial, emergiu na cena política internacional através da crise financeira de 2008. Ignorar a índole sistêmica desta crise implica obscurecer os obstáculos que enfrentamos para conseguir uma maior inclusão social e integração nacional.”

Da crise emergirá o pós-capitalismo?

“Ao cobrir, para a TV britânica, a fase mais recente da crise na Grécia, o jornalista Paul Mason alcançou quase-onipresença em seu país: Mason falando com Alexis Tsipras e outros membros do Syriza; Mason em mangas de camisa diante da câmera, diante do banco central da Grécia; Mason desviando de bombas em outro confronto entre anarquistas e a polícia — isso forma parte da iconografia da crise grega para muitos britânicos.

Agora, enquanto a Grécia e o resto da Europa recuperam seu fôlego, Mason retornou para a Inglaterra para lançar seu novo livro: “Post-Capitalism: a guide to our future” [“Pós-capitalismo: um guia para nosso futuro”]. Não é um trabalho de reportagem, mas uma ampla análise histórica e econômica. Inspirada pela análise de Marx sore relações sociais capitalistas, ela vai, no entanto, além disso — de uma maneira que, reconhece o autor, talvez não agrade alguns de seus amigos na extrema esquerda. O livro é uma análise do “neoliberalismo” — o capitalismo altamente financeirizado que dominou a maior parte do mundo desenvolvido nos últimos 30 anos — e, ao mesmo tempo, uma tentativa de imaginar o que poderia substituí-lo.”

A importância da imaginação pós-capitalista. Entrevista com David Harvey

“A análise do capitalismo sugere que há contradições significativas e fundamentais. Periodicamente, essas contradições saem do controle e geram uma crise. Nós acabamos de passar por uma crise, e eu acho que é importante perguntar quais foram as contradições que nos levaram a isso. Como podemos analisar a crise em termos de contradições? Um dos grandes ditados de Marx era que a crise é sempre o resultado das contradições subjacentes. Portanto, temos que lidar com elas em si mesmas, ao invés de lidar com os seus resultados.”

Why Capitalism Will Eat Democracy

“Have you wondered why politicians aren’t what they used to be, why governments seem unable to solve real problems? Economist Yanis Varoufakis, the former Minister of Finance for Greece, says that it’s because you can be in politics today but not be in power — because real power now belongs to those who control the economy. He believes that the mega-rich and corporations are cannibalizing the political sphere, causing financial crisis. In this talk, hear his dream for a world in which capital and labor no longer struggle against each other, “one that is simultaneously libertarian, Marxist and Keynesian.”

This is the end of marriage, capitalism and God. Finally!

“The next big thing isn’t a clever gadget or miracle drug—it’s a way of life: not a breakthrough invention but a social innovation. And it’s not so much a beginning as it as a series of endings.”

Artificial Abundance and Artificial Scarcity

Capitalism has pursued a model of growth based on the extensive addition of artificially cheap inputs. This has been possible either because the colonial conquest of the world outside Europe has given the extractive industries privileged access to mineral deposits, fossil fuels and other natural resources, or because capitalist states have subsidized important material inputs to the corporate economy like transportation infrastructure and the reproduction of trained labor-power, at the expense of the general population.

The problem is that when a particular factor input is subsidized and artificially cheap, a business will consume increasing amounts of it as it substitutes it for other factors. And at the same time, capitalism has been beset by a long-term tendency, since the depressions of the late 19th century, towards crises of over-investment and excess capacity, demand shortfalls and declining organic rates of profit.

Anarchist Themes in the Work of Elinor Ostrom

This paper is intended as one in a series, to be read along with my previous one on James C. Scott, on anarchist and decentralist thinkers whose affection for the particularity of local, human-scale institutions overrides any doctrinaire ideological labels.

The Governance of Common Pool Resources. Ostrom begins by noting the problem of natural resource depletion—what she calls “common pool resources”—and then goes on to survey three largely complementary (“closely related concepts”) major theories that attempt to explain “the many problems that individuals face when attempting to achieve collective benefits”: Hardin’s “tragedy of the commons,” the prisoner’s dilemma, and Olson’s “logic of collective action.”

Alternatives to Capitalism: Derek Wall’s Economics After Capitalism (2015)

“In his book Economics After Capitalism: A Guide to the Ruins and a Road to the Future (Pluto Press, 2015), Derek Wall (International Coordinator of the Green Party of England and Wales) discusses various critiques of capitalism, and examines how we can create practical alternatives to capitalism and build a ‘democratic economy and a future free of rampant climate change, financial chaos, and the ravages of elite rule’.”

Cosmopolis – David David Cronenberg

 

 

LINKS RELACIONADOS:

Utopias / 1. Social Justice

Basic Income

 

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